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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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    Abstract - Issue May 2020, 41 (3)                                     Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Identification, characterization and mapping of honey bee flora of Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia


A.A. Al-Ghamdi1, A. Al-Khulaidi2,3, N.A. Al-Sagheer2,3*, A. Nuru1 and Y. Tadesse1 

1Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Biology, College of Science and Arts, Al-Baha University, Al Baha, 65527, Saudi Arabia

3Agricultural Research and Extension Authority, Dhamar, 87148, Yemen

*Corresponding Author Email :

Paper received: 14.06.2019??????? ?????????????????????????????????????? Revised received: 25.10.2019????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? Accepted: 13.12.2019



Aim: The study aimed to identify and document major honey bee flora, their blooming seasons (floral calendar), density and frequency, beekeeping potential areas, and place radius for the major bee flora of the Al-Baha region.

Methodology: To identify the honey bee flora of al-Baha region, 420 quadrates were established in different seasons and ecological zones. Plants as honey bee forages were identified through observation of the foraging of honey bees on the flowers for nectar or/and pollen. The density and frequency of each plant was calculated, density and radius maps for major honey bee plants were made using the Arc-Map. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was carried out for major honey bee plants using MVSP software.          

Results: The results showed that more than 550 species of flowering plants were recorded in the study areas, of which 204 plant species belonging to 58 families were identified as honey bee plants. However, only 9 species were found to be an important source of major honeys in the region. The largest number (13%) of honey bee plants was recorded for the family Asteraceae, followed by Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Mimosaceae each with 13 (6.4%), 11 (5.4%), 11 (5.4%) and 10 (4.9%) plants, respectively.? Each of the remaining families had 1 to 8 species.??????? ???     

Interpretation: The radius maps, as well as the blooming periods of honey bee flora will guide beekeepers to move their colonies during the peak flowering periods.? ?????   

Key words: Al-Baha region, Canonical Correspondence Analysis, Ecological zones, Honey bee flora, Nectar, Pollen grains



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