JEB logo

Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

About Journal
    Home
    Editor in Chief
    Editorial Board
    Reviewer Panel
    Publication Policies
    Guidelines for Editors
    Guidelines for Reviewers
    Abstracting and Indexing
    Subscription and Payments
    Contact Journal
 
Read Journal
    Current Issue
    Journal Archives
 
For Authors
    Guidelines for Authors
    Terms and Conditions
    Fees and Payments
    Track Paper Status
 
Announcements
    JEB Awards
 

Google Search the Journal web-site:


    Abstract - Issue Jan 2014, 35 (1)                                     Back


nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Hazard prioritization and risk characterization of antibiotics in an irrigated Costa Rican region used for intensive crop, livestock

and aquaculture farming

 

 

Elba de la Cruz1*, Mara Luisa Fournier1, Fernando Garca2, Andrea Molina3,

Guadalupe Chavarra3, Margarita Alfaro3, Fernando Ramrez1 and Csar Rodrguez2

1Instituto Regional de Estudios en Sustancias Txicas (IRET). Universidad Nacional, Campus Omar Dengo, Heredia, 86-3000, Costa Rica

2Centro de Investigacin en Enfermedades Tropicales (CIET) and Facultad de Microbiologa. Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad

Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, 2060, San Jos, Costa Rica

3Centro de Investigacin en Nutricin Animal (CINA). Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio,

San Pedro de Montes de Oca, 2060, San Jos, Costa Rica

*Corresponding Author E-mail: elba.delacruz.malavassi@una.cr

 

 

 

 

 

 Publication Data

Paper received:

28 September 2012

 

Revised received:

21 April 2013

 

Accepted:

05 September 2013

 

Abstract

 

Antibiotics alter the homeostasis of microbial communities and select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the wild. Thus, the accumulation of unnaturally high concentration of these substances in the environment due to their use in human activities can be regarded as a neglected form of pollution, especially in countries with agricultural-based economies. Qualitative and quantitative information on antibiotic usage in Costa Rica is scarce, hence the design and enforcement of prevention strategies and corrective measures is difficult. To address this issue, and aiming in the long run to contribute with a more rational use of pharmaceuticals in the tropics, we characterized the hazard associated with the antibiotics used during 2008 in agriculture, aquaculture, pig farming, veterinary medicine and human medicine in the major irrigation district of Costa Rica. Hazard indicators were calculated based on antibiotic use and a weighted algorithm that also considered antibiotic fate, toxicity, and resistance. Moreover, hazard quotients were computed using maximum environmental concentrations reported for Costa Rican surface waters and predicted no effect concentrations for aquatic organisms. The number of antibiotics used in the ATID during the study were n = 38 from 15 families. Antibiotic consumption was estimated at 1169-109908 g ha-1 year-1 and, distinctively, almost half of this figure was traced back to phenicols. Tetracyclines, with a particular contribution of oxytetracycline, were the most widely used antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Oxytetracycline, florfenicol, chlortetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim and tylosin, in that order showed the highest hazard indicators. Moreover, hazard quotients greater than 1 were calculated for oxacillin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, and ciprofloxacin. Studies dealing with the ecotoxicology of tetracyclines, sulfonamides and quinolones, as well as surveys of phenicol resistance among environmental bacteria, should be prioritized in Costa Rica. 

 

Key words

 

Antibiotics, Aquatic ecosystems, Costa Rica, Hazard indicators, Hazard quotients

 

 

Copyright 2014 Triveni Enterprises. All rights reserved. No part of the Journal can be reproduced in any form without prior permission. Responsibility regarding the authenticity of the data, and the acceptability of the conclusions enforced or derived, rest completely with the author(s).