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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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        Abstract - Issue Mar 2019, 40 (2)                                                                                                             Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Characterisation of cholinesterase and histopathological features of brain of Clarias gariepinus following exposure to cadmium


Paper received: 14.12.2017                     Revised received: 06.04.2018                          Re-revised received: 29.05.2018                  Accepted: 11.07.2018



Authors Info

N.I. Fadzil1, S.A.Ahmad1*,

N.A. Yasid1, M.K. Sabullah2,

H.M. Daud3, A. Khalid4,

S.N. Padrilah1 and M.Y. Shukor1   


1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

3Department of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnostic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

4Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



*Corresponding Author Email :






Aim: Cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition and histopathological features of brain tissues of Clarias gariepinus were investigated with a purpose to develop biomarkers for monitoring heavy metals.    


Methodology: The effects of cadmium toxicity on C. gariepinus were assessed by ChE inhibition and characterisation of ChE by affinity chromatography and histological variations in brain tissues were studied by H&E staining under light microscope.


Results: The purified enzyme gave 10.58 fold purification with the recovery of 12% with specific activity of 159.729 U mg-1. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and Vmax value obtained was 1.985 mM and 0.4479 µmol min-1 mg-1, respectively. The enzyme showed the ability to hydrolyse acetylthiocholine iodide (ATC) at a faster rate compared to other two synthetic substrates, propionylcholine iodide (PTC) and butyrylthiocholine iodide (BTC). ChE showed highest activity at 35°C in Tris-HCl pH 7.5. The metal inhibition study also found the maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for cadmium to be 0.6517 mg l-1. Histological study revealed decrease in the number of cells, degeneration of Purkinje cells, increased aggregation area and cells necrosis.


Interpretation: Inhibition of cholinesterase activity and degeneration of Purkinje cells observed in the present study can be used as a tool for further developing a biomarker for detecting heavy metals in the aquatic ecosystems.


Key words: Biomarker, Cadmium, Cholinesterase, Clarias gariepinus, Histopathology




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