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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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        Abstract - Issue Sep 2018, 39 (5)                                                                                                             Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

High ammonia tolerance on growth rate of marine microalga Chlorella vulgaris


M. Goto1, N. Nagao2*, F. Md. Yusoff2, M.S. Kamarudin3, T. Katayama4, N. Kurosawa1, M. Koyama5, K. Nakasaki5 and T. Toda1

1Faculty of Science and Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577, Japan

2Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Daryl Ehsan, Malaysia

3Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Daryl Ehsan, Malaysia

4Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan

5Department of Transdisciplinary Science and Engineering, School of Environment and Society, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan

*Corresponding Author E-mail:




Key words

ammonia tolerance

Chlorella vulgaris

free ammonia

Marine microalga





Publication Data

Paper received : 09.06.2017

Revised received : 15.08.2017

Re-revised received : 19.11.2017

Accepted : 28.12.2017



Aim: In order to evaluate the effects of ammonia on microalgae growth, chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in ammonium nitrogen.     


Methodology: The marine microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in algal media containing increasing concentrations of ammonium concentrations at 320, 640, 960, 1600 mg l-1, with free ammonia concentrations of 0.64 to 2.97 mM and pH ranging from 7.78 to 7.82. An addition ammonia treatment was 1600 mg l-1 that had a free ammonia concentration of 13.30 mM, while a control was NaNO3 at 100 mg l-1.      


Results: C. vulgaris grew faster when cultured using ammonium nitrogen than nitrate nitrogen. The dry weight of C. vulgaris increased even under extremely high ammonium conditions of 1600 mg-N l-1, which initially contained 2.97 mM free ammonia and reached around 4 g-ds l-1. Algal growth was inhibited in the beginning of the experiment at the highest initial free ammonia concentration of 13.30 mM. However, the cell density increased 2 days later when free ammonia concentration decreased to 3.7 mM due to decrease in pH from 8.48 to 7.88, and the maximum area productivity of 21.12 g-ds m-2 d-1 was observed.


Interpretation: These results showed that C. vulgaris could maintain high productivity even in high free ammonia concentrations of 3.7 mM. Because of the high tolerance for free ammonia compared with other microalgae, C. vulgaris can be used for the aquaculture industry by removing ammonia from wastewater, and thus improving the water quality.




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