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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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        Abstract - Issue Sep 2018, 39 (5)                                                                                                             Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Sequential high rate algal ponds operation for enhanced treatment

of organic wastewater


M. Kishi1*, H. Takee1, M. Kawai1, N. Nagao2 and T. Toda1

1Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, 1-236 Tangi-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577, Japan

2Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

*Corresponding Author E-mail:




Key words

algal-bacterial consortium

Algal pond

Aquaculture wastewater

sequential HRAP operation





Publication Data

Paper received : 09.06.2017

Revised received : 19.09.2017

Accepted : 28.12.2017



Aim: Treatment of aquaculture wastewater often experiences fluctuations in chemical oxygen demand, causing insufficient performances. This study aimed to evaluate the stability of sequential high rate algal ponds in treating simulated aquaculture wastewater.


Methodology: Two 1m3 high rate algal ponds were sequentially connected to treat simulated aquaculture wastewater, which was prepared through diluting solubilized food waste (chemical oxygen demand: 300 mg l-1). The hydraulic retention time was set at 10 days for each reactor.


Results: More than 80% of influent organics and nearly 100% of nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate) were removed from the effluent. While the oxygen demand removal in Pond 1 was incomplete around Day 8, Pond 2 was successful in removing untreated biodegradable oxygen demand from Pond 1 effluent. In addition, the sequential HRAP operation reduced bacterial biomass in the algal biomass of Pond 2 owing to the low organic loading on the second pond.


Interpretation: These results indicate that sequential HRAP operation has advantages not only in stable wastewater treatment performance, but also in the valorization of algal biomass produced through aquaculture wastewater treatment.




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