of phenanthrene and cadmium from co-contaminated alkaline soil by carpet
grass, siam weed and winged bean
Somtrakoon1* and W. Chouychai2
Applied Microbiology Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham
University, Kantharawichai, Mahasarakham-44150, thailand
Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhonsawan Rajabhat University,
Author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Paper received : 13.07.2017
Revised received : 07.11.2017
Re-revised received :
Accepted : 09.02.2018
of soil co-contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy
metal is rarely reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the
ability of carpet grass (Axonopus compressus), Siam weed (Chromolaena
odorata) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) to remove
cadmium and phenanthrene concurrently from contaminated soil.
Methodology: Soil was spiked
with phenanthrene alone or phenanthrene plus cadmium to give initial
concentration of phenanthrene in soil with and without cadmium were 44.9 and
87.8 mg kg-1 dry soil, respectively. Initial concentration of
cadmium in soil spiked with phenanthrene plus cadmium was 6.2 mg kg-1
dry soil. Carpet grass, Siam weed and winged bean were planted separately in
phenanthrene-spiked soil or phenanthrene and cadmium-spiked soil for 60 days.
Growth of each plant, phenanthrene remaining in soil, cadmium remaining in
soil, phenanthrene and cadmium in biomass of each plant were measured on day
30 and 60 of transplantation.
Results: Carpet grass,
Siam weed and winged bean grew normally in soil spiked with phenanthrene
alone or phenanthrene+cadmium over the 60-day experiment. The presence of
plants did not result in cadmium removal, as the amount of this metal in soil
remained unchanged after 60 days. Negligible amounts of phenanthrene and
cadmium were accumulated by Siam weed, carpet grass and winged bean after 60
days. All three plants could increase the removal of phenanthrene from soil.
Around 6.3-12.4% and 5.1-27.1% of phenanthrene remained in planted soil in
the absence or presence of cadmium in soil on day 60, respectively.
Interpretation: The results
suggest that phytostimulation may be the main mechanism of phenanthrene
removal from contaminated soil. The simultaneous removal of phenanthrene and
cadmium in planted soil was not observe. A mild alkaline soil may decrease
the accumulation of cadmium by plants.
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