JEB logo

Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

About Journal
    Editorial Board
    Reviewer Panel
    RnD Division
    Subscription Info
    Contact Journal
Read Journal
    Current Issue
    Journal Archives
For Authors
    Authoring Guidelines
    Publication Process
    Track Paper Status
    JEB Award

Search the Journal web-site through Google:

        Abstract - Issue May 2018, 39 (3)                                                                                                             Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Investigations on environmental emissions characteristics of

CI engine fuelled with castor biodiesel blends


S.K. Mahla1*, A. Dhir2, V. Singla1 and P. Rosha2

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.K. Gujral Punjab Technical University Campus, Hoshiarpur-146 001, India

2School of Energy and Environment, Thapar University, Patiala-147 004, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail:




Key words


Brake thermal efficiency

Exhaust emissions

Ricinus communis





Publication Data

Paper received : 20.01.2017

Revised received : 18.05.2017

Re-revised received : 08.08.2017

Accepted : 13.10.2017      



Aim: Biodiesel is an attractive fuel option for diesel engines in view of issues related to fossil fuel crisis and environmental degradation. The present study aimed to prepare biodiesel from non-edible grade castor Ricinus communis oil and to evaluate the emission characteristics of castor biodiesel fuelled diesel engine at different engine operating loads. 


Methodology: The biodiesel was prepared from non-edible grade castor oil by single step alkaline transesterification process at room temperature.The fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, density, calorific value, flash point, pour point, and cloud point were measured as per ASTM D-6751 specifications.The engine used for experimental work is a single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine. The engine testing was performed at different engine loads (0.9, 1.8 and 2.7 bmep) and at constant speed of 1500 rpm with different tested fuel blends i.e. B0, B20, B40 and B60. The emission parameters like nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide were evaluated using flue gas analyzer.


Results: Production yield of 96.5% was obtained using biodiesel synthesis and castor oil based biodiesel was found to possess similar fuel properties when compared to fossil petro-diesel. At full engine load condition of 2.7 bmep, the hydrocarbon emission was lowered by 24.6, 39.6 and 42.1% for B20, B40 and B60 fuels, respectively, and the carbon monoxide emission was reduced by 12.9, 17.1 and 26.2% for tested fuel blends B20, B40 and B60, respectively, when compared to petro-diesel. At 2.7 bmep load condition, the NOx emissions was higher by 28.2% for B60 fuel when compared to petro-diesel, while, at 0.9 bmep load condition, NOx emissions increased by 11.8 and 15.1% for B20 and B40 blends, respectively, when compared with petro-diesel.        


Interpretation: The non-edible grade of castor oil can be used as a raw material for biodiesel production and its blend with diesel is a suitable fuel candidate for use in diesel engine without modifications, which results in overall low emissions.



Copyright 2018 Triveni Enterprises. All rights reserved. No part of the Journal can be reproduced in any form without prior permission. Responsibility regarding the authenticity of the data, and the acceptability of the conclusions enforced or derived, rest completely with the author(s).