input-output relationship of soybean-based cropping systems under different
nutrient supply options
Prajapat1*, A.K. Vyas2, S. Dhar3, N.K. Jain2,
Mohd. Hashim4 and G.L. Choudhary5
Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132 001, India
2Indian Council of
Agricultural Research, New Delhi-110 012, India
Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India
Agricultural Research Institute, RS-Pusa-848 112, India
University, Sabour-813 210, India
Author E-mail: email@example.com
Energy use efficiency
Nutrient supply options
Paper received :
06.09.2016 Revised received :
10.05.2017 Re-revised received : 18.05.2017 Accepted :
Aim: Increase in
agricultural productivity with minimal energy utilization without any adverse
impact on the environment is a pre-requisite of present agricultural
practices through best agronomic management of crop production. The present
investigation aimed to identify the most energy efficient cropping system and
nutrient supply option which exert minimal impact on the environment.
experiment was carried out for two consecutive years at Indian Agricultural
Research Institute, New Delhi for the evaluation of soybean-based cropping
systems with five nutrient supply options with respect to energy parameters,
as well as carbon emission equivalents. The different inputs used in raising
the crops and output of crops were converted into energy and carbon
equivalents using standard conversion factors and used for computation of
different energy and carbon efficiency indices.
soybean–potato–mungbean system recorded significantly highest system
productivity in terms of soybean seed-equivalent yield (7.68 t ha-1),
however soybean–chickpea–fodder sorghum system recorded highest net energy
(333.9 ×103 MJ ha-1), energy efficiency (9.56), energy
productivity (179 gMJ-1), energy profitability (8.6 MJ ha-1),
human energy profitability (105.2) and energy intensiveness (6.76).
Soybean–chickpea–fodder sorghum system maintained higher carbon output and
carbon efficiency which was 22.9 and 15.6% higher over soybean–wheat system,
respectively. Among the nutrient supply options, application of 50% RDF + 50%
RDN through FYM accounted for the highest energy output (286.1 MJ ha-1),
net energy (240.3 MJ ha-1) and energy output efficiency (968 MJ ha-1
day-1) and also reduced the carbon flux to the atmosphere as
compared to 100% RDF.
cropping system followed and sources of nutrient supply had considerable
impact on utilization of energy, as well as carbon emission equivalents.
Therefore, besides looking only upon productivity of a particular cropping
system and management level, their relative energy efficiency and resultant
impact on the environment should also be taken into consideration for
ensuring judicious use of non-renewable resources.
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