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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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        Abstract - Issue Nov 2017, 38 (6)                                                                                                             Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Phenology of three anuran species in

Sierra de Guadalupe forest, Mexico


S.F. Arias-Balderas1,2* and F.R. Méndez de la Cruz2*

1Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria,

Delegación Coyoacán, Mexico City, 04510, Mexico

2Zoology Department, Biology Institute, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria,

Delegación Coyoacán, Mexico City, 04510, Mexico

*Corresponding Author E-mail:




Key words



environmental variables

larval cycle




Publication Data

Paper received : 05.05.2016

Revised received : 07.12.2016

Re-revised received : 18.01.2017

Accepted : 24.02.2017



Aim: Biological and ecological aspects of a large part of the Mexican anuran species are largely unknown. Information about their habits is helpful to establish the role they play in their environment. Hyla arenicolor, Spea multiplicata and Hyla eximia are widely distributed species and apparently coexist in much of the Mexican Altiplane. However, their reproductive strategies are different. The aim of this work was to determine the spatio-temporal distribution of these three species under field conditions.


Methodology: The populations of three species of anurans were studied in two ponds and one reservoir for five years from a Protected Natural Area, called the Sierra de Guadalupe (State of Mexico). Species presence, date, sex, age group, as well as air and water temperatures were recorded at sites, while the relative humidity and precipitation data were obtained from the Atmospheric Monitoring System of the City of Mexico. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and circular statistics was carried out to determine the differences among species in presence, activity, and time in larval development.


Results: In all 1328 records of the three species were obtained. For the spatial-temporal distribution patterns, the results did not show significant differences in the occupation of the ponds.The species showed the peak activity from 17:00 to 00:00, with H. arenicolor being the only one that presented a bimodal activity. The sex ratio showed significant differences among the species. The highest similarities in sex ratio were found between S. multiplicata and H. arenicolor throughout the study, whereas H. eximia differed every year.  


Interpretation: The implication of climatic factors showed that the years with the longest delay in the rainfall had influence on the presence of anurans and duration of permanency. This can accelerate the larval period of S. multiplicata. The shortening of reproductive phase and the life cycle from tadpole to adult can have adverse effects on the anuran population.



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