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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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        Abstract - Issue Sep 2017, 38 (5)                                                                                                             Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Forest communities and ecological differentiation

of the Mt. elmacik (Duzce, Turkey)


N. Aksoy1* and S. Coban2

1Department of Forestry, Botany and DUOF Herbarium, Faculty of Forestry, Duzce University, Duzce, 81620, Turkey

2Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, Bahcekoy, Istanbul, 34473, Turkey

*Corresponding Author E-mail:




Key words




Multivariate techniques,





Publication Data

Paper received : 20.08.2016 Revised received : 15.06.2017 Accepted : 26.06.2017



Aim: This research is based on vegetation elaboration of Elmacik Mountain in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey, which has a quite rich floristic and vegetation diversity.


Methodology: Since varied ecological conditions cause a diverse vegetation in the region, vegetation-environment relation was analyzed with multivariate statistical techniques. In the context of the study, syntaxonomical scheme of the region was introduced and ecological characteristics of the main forest types and vegetation data were analyzed using environmental variables and Ellenberg Indicator Values (EIVs) derived from species composition.


Results: The forest vegetation was presented by 2 classes and 2 orders which contained 4 alliances and 11 associations. Constrained ordination revealed that the altitude is the most important factor affecting species composition (23.1 %), followed by soil depth (19.1 %). However, when conditional effects of variables are considered, forest cover (16.7 %) had the highest contribution following altitude (23.1 %). Hyperico calycini-Quercetum petraea had the highest species diversity because of one-storied and light penetrating leaf structure. However, Rhododenro pontici-Fagetum orientalis had the lowest species diversity due to a dense shrub cover consisting of Rhododendron ponticum. Average EIVs for continentality, soil nutrient and light were positively correlated with altitude and nutrient EIVs with soil depth, stand height and cover. Radiation index calculated from latitude, slope degree and aspect showed correlation with light and continentality EIVs.


Interpretation: Altitudinal distribution of forest communities was mainly affected by exposure and soil conditions (soil depth, soil type) in the region. Species variation in each unit was well explained with the average EIVs, which were also supported with the measured environmental variables. 


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