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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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    Abstract - Issue Sep 2017, 38 (5)                                     Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Seasonal dynamics of surface energy fluxes over

a center-pivot irrigated cropland in Saudi Arabia


R. Madugundu1*, K.A. Al-Gaadi1,2, E. Tola1, A.G. Kayad2, A.A. Hassaballa1 and V.C. Patil3

1Precision Agriculture Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud Universtiy, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia

3Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup WA-6027, Australia

*Corresponding Author E-mail:




Key words


Eddy covariance,

Energy flux,


Hyper-arid climates 



Publication Data

Paper received : 15.06.2016

Revised received : 17.10.16

Re-revised received : 23.02.2017

Accepted : 09.03.2017



Aim: This study focused on the seasonal dynamics of energy fluxes over selected agro ecosystems (alfalfa and corn crops) to understand the role of energy partitioning in determining the mechanisms controlling the crop water requirement and irrigation schedules.


Methodology: Eddy Covariance (EC) flux tower was installed on a center pivot irrigated field located in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. EC data of nearly three years (May 2013 to March 2016) was analysed for variations in agro-climatic conditions, energy fluxes and their partition under both cropped (alfalfa and corn) and non-cropped (fallow) scenarios.


Results: Three-year mean net radiation (Rn) varied from 106.8 to 816.54 Wm-2, while the recorded sensible heat, soil heat (G) and latent heat fluxes were 291.6, 158 and 3.8 Wm-2, respectively. The latent heat was more during the crop growing season (381.38 W m-2) compared to fallow (23.89 W m-2); while, sensible heat showed an opposite trend compared to latent heat. The sensible heat recorded during the growing season (38.42 W m-2) was much lower than for the fallow season (281.35 W m-2). ????


Interpretation: There was contrasting variations in sensible heat and latent heat fluxes across seasons and corresponding to the changing climate and surface conditions of the field. In the case of silage corn, the proportions of partitioned energy to sensible heat (12.4%) and latent heat (18%) were higher than alfalfa. However, during the alfalfa post-harvest practices, the latent heat flux was always less as the available energy was partitioned as sensible heat rather than latent heat flux.



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