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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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    Abstract - Issue May 2017, 38 (3)                                     Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Studies on the reproductive strategies of sapota (Manilkara zapota)


K. Kishore*, D. Samant, H.S. Singh and S. Behera

Central Horticultural Experiment Station (ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research), Aiginia, Bhubaneswar?751 019, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail:




Key words

Floral chamber,

Floral traits,

M. zapota,

Pollination syndrome,





Publication Data

Paper received : 06.02.2016

Revised received : 09.07.2016

Accepted : 06.10.2016



Aim: M. zapota is inadequately known with respect to its reproductive strategy and functional specialization which are crucial aspects in determining its reproductive success. The present investigation was conducted to study the role of floral traits in pollinator recruitment, pollinators' involvement in selection of floral traits and strategies of plants to ensure pollination services.


Methodology: Fifteen-year-old trees of sapota (var. Kalipatti) were taken as an experimental material. Floral characters like floral morphology, anthesis, pollen dehiscence, stigma receptivity, pollen production were studied by tagging twenty flowering branches distributed across ten plants. Pollination efficiency was also studied. The relation between parameters was worked out through simple linear regression equation.


Results: Flowers were characterized by small aperture, floral chamber, long spell of stigma receptivity (48 hrs), imperceptible nectar secretion, high pollen ovule ratio (980:1) and self-compatibility. The peak stigma receptivity was between 07:00 ? 10:00 hr on the day of anthesis. On the basis of visitation rate (3.0-5.5/flower) and pollination efficiency (13.85 ? 17.87%) thrips were considered as primary pollinators and Silvanopsis sp. (beetle) as a co-pollinator. Presence of narrow aperture, floral chamber and imperceptible secretion of nectar make the flowers of sapota functionally specialized.


Interpretation: Floral traits like narrow flower aperture played a crucial role in filtering specific visitors (thrips and beetle) to access floral rewards. Moreover, the morphological adaptation like floral chamber facilitated better pollen services by providing shelter and breeding place for pollinators. 



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