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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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        Abstract - Issue Mar 2017, 38 (2)                                                                                                             Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Histopathological alterations in the kidneys of

Labeo rohita due to lead toxicity


O. S. Brraich* and M. Kaur

Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Punjabi University, Patiala-147 002, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail:




Key words

Lead toxicity,

Aquatic ecosystem,

Labeo rohita, Kidney,





Publication Data

Paper received : 15.04.2015

Revised received : 04.02.2016

Accepted : 06.06.2016



Aim: Lead is one of the most hazardous heavy metal that is known to cause cancer and affects reproduction, liver, thyroid and kidney functions of the organisms. To know more about lead toxicity, a toxicity test was conducted on the healthy fingerlings of Labeo rohita and histopathological alterations were studied.

Methodology: The stock solution of lead nitrate was prepared and the test fingerlings were exposed to four sublethal concentrations on the basis of 1/3rd, 1/5th, 1/7th and 1/10th of LC50 value i.e., 11.4 mg l-1, 6.84 mg l-1, 4.88 mg l-1 and 3.42 mg l-1, respectively. One fingerling from each dose was sacrificed after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of exposure and dissected to remove the kidney tissues. The tissues were washed in buffer and fixed in 10 % formalin, dehydrated in ascending grades of alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in parafin wax. The wax blocks were then further processed for section cutting and staining. The sections were viewed under light microscope and histological alterations were studied.


Results: The histopathological changes such as cellular hypertrophy, vacuolation of epithelial cells of renal tubules, glomerular distortion, increase in the space of Bowman's capsule, occlusion of lumen of renal tubule, loosening of the haemopoeitic tissue, disruption of tubular organisation, nuclear hypertrophy, picnotic nuclei, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, tubular and glomerular degeneration, lymphocytic infiltration, melanomacrophage aggregates and tubular necrosis were observed in all the treatments.


Interpretation: The damage increased with the increase in the dose of lead nitrate and days of exposure. The addition of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems is a matter of great concern because it causes failure of vital organs in fish. Therefore, industrial effluents should be discharged in natural waters after proper treatment for protection and sustainability of valuable fish fauna.



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