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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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    Abstract - Issue Sep 2016, 37 (5)                                     Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Rapid propidium monoazide cPCR assay for exclusive quantification

of viable Salmonella spp. cells


N. M. Sunar1*, D.I. Stewart2, L.A. Fletcher2, E.I. Stentiford2 and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf3,4

 1Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400, Batu Pahat,? Johor, Malaysia

2Pathogen Control Engineering (PaCE) Institute, School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.

3Faculty of Science & Natural Resources, University Malaysia Sabah 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

4Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan, P. R. China

*Corresponding Author E-mail:


 Publication Data

Paper received:

21 February 2016


Revised received:

27 April 2016


Re-revised received:

5 May 2016



23 June 2016



Combination of pretreatment with propidium monoazide by competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) was evaluated to enumerate the viability of Salmonella spp. The results showed that PMA treatment was effective in preventing the cPCR detection of target sequences from non-viable cells. In less than 5 hrs, this method generated a signal from viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Salmonella spp. The standard culture method gave approximately 1-2 log10 cfu ml-1 less as compared to the PMA-cPCR results. These results provided evidence to support the VBNC state, whereas, the viable cells failed to be cultured by SCM. The proposed method did not detect DNA from dead Salmonella spp. but recognizes the infectious potential of the VBNC state and is thereby, able to assess the effect of control strategies and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment.   



 Key words

Competitive PCR, Pathogen indicator, Propidium monoazide, Salmonella spp.



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