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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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        Abstract - Issue Jan 2015, 36 (1)                                                                                                             Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Acute and subchronic toxicity of metal complex azo acid dye and anionic surfactant oil on fish Oreochromis niloticus


Hilma Rantilla Amwele1, Pittaya Papirom2, Kanit Chukanhom3, Fredrick Henry William Beamish4 and Rakpong Petkam1*

1Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand

2Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand

3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand

4Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Bangsaen, Chonburi 20131, Thailand

*Corresponding Author E-mail:




 Publication Data

Paper received:

20 May 2013


Revised received:

26 December 2013


Re-revised received:

28 March 2014



23 April 2014



The acute toxicity study of metal complex dark green azo acid dye, anionic surfactant oil and their mixture determined the 96 hr LC50 and fish behaviours. Subchronic toxicity determined haematology parameters and concentrations of copper and chromium in blood. The 96 hr LC50 was determined by probit analysis and subchronic toxicity was conducted in 90 days. No mortalities were observed in control and anionic surfactant oil treatments. The 96 hr LC50 value of mixture was 26.7 mg l-1 (95% CL = 20.7 - 46.8) and that of metal complex dark green azo acid dye was not met as the percentage of dead was below 50% of tested organisms. In a treatment of anionic surfactant oil and that of mixture observed behaviours were respiration response, uncoordinated movement, loss of equilibrium, erratic posture and loss of responsiveness. Subchronic toxicity indicated fluctuations in number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes in all chemical treatments. Erythrocyte morphology such as anisocytosis, erythrocytes hypertrophy, karyolysis, cytoplasm vacuolation, ghost cell were observed in fish blood in all chemical treatments. An inverse relation was observed between total copper and chromium concentration in blood. However, the toxicity effect was chemical dose dependent and length of exposure.  


 Key words

Behaviour, Chromium, Copper, Haematology, Nile tilapia




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