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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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        Abstract - Issue Sep 2014, 35 (5)                                                                                                             Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Studies on cigarette smoke induced oxidative DNA damage

and reduced spermatogenesis in rats


Rula Abdul-Ghani1*, Munir Qazzaz2, Nabil Dabdoub3, Rateb Muhammad3 and A-S Abdul-Ghani4

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 19356, East Jerusalem, Palestine

2Faculty of Nursing, Pharmacy and Health Professions, Birzeit University, P.O. Box 19314, West Bank, Palestine

3Biology and Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Birzeit University, P.O. Box 19314, West Bank, Palestine

4Physiology and Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 19356, East Jerusalem, West Bank, Palestine

*Corresponding Author E-mail:




Publication Data

Paper received:

24 May 2013


Revised received:

29 November 2013



08 March 2014




In the present work, the effect of exposure to cigarette smoke on male fertility in rats, as characterized by changes in the relative weight of sex organs, epididymal sperm count, activity of marker enzymes and DNA damage was evaluated. Exposure of rats to cigarette smoke caused a gradual decrease in total body weight gain and relative weight of the epididymis and seminal vesicles by 30 and 40% respectively. Epididymal sperm count was reduced significantly by 25% (P ≤ 0.05) after 2 weeks and by 41% (P ≤ 0.001) after 4 weeks of exposure. Exposure to cigarette smoke had reduced the activity of sorbitol dehydogenase by 18% (P≤0.05) and increased the activity of lactate dehydrogenase by 28% (P ≤ 0.05). The changes in both key enzymes were significant, which reflected the inhibitory effect of cigarette smoke on spermatogenesis and sperm maturation. The toxic effect of exposure could be explained partially due to induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress as shown by the significant increase in serum 8-hydroxy-2`-deoxyguanosine from 22.83 to 37.33 ng ml-1 blood. 


Key words

Cigarette smoke, DNA damage, Infertility, Spermatogenesis, Sperm count



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