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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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    Abstract - Issue Jan 2014, 35 (1)                                     Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Environmental hazards associated with pesticide

import into Costa Rica, 1977-2009


Elba de la Cruz*,Viria Bravo-Dur?n, Fernando Ram?rez and Luisa E. Castillo

Instituto Regional de Estudios en Sustancias T?xicas (IRET). Universidad Nacional, Campus Omar Dengo, 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica

*Corresponding Author E-mail: 





 Publication Data

Paper received:

10 June 2013


Revised received:

26 June 2013



05 September 2013




Raw pesticide import data from 1977 to 2009 obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture in Costa Rica were processed and analyzed. The quantity of specific active ingredients (a.i.) and chemical groups were calculated by year and presented in ten-year periods. Three sets of environmental hazard indicators were constructed: one for general pesticides exposure to monitor tendencies in time, including total quantities imported divided by significant denominators, such as hectares of protected and wetland areas. The second indicator calculates pesticide use on the Pacific or Caribbean slope. The third one is an assessment of environmental hazards intended to estimate fate and toxicity to aquatic biota. A review of Costa Rican aquatic ecosystems' contamination with pesticides is presented. The annual average import as well as the quantity of pesticides capable of reaching water bodies increased during the analyzed period. The same was observed for harmful a.i., 98% of the pesticides imported were classified as acutely toxic for fish and crustaceans and 73% for amphibians. Approximately 8.4 kg of a.i. were imported per hectare of protected areas and 24.3 kg of a.i. per hectare of wetlands. The contamination of aquatic systems over time by specific pesticides matches quite well the list of imported ones. We recommend using data of pesticide imports as a source of information to evaluate environmental risk exposure and promote changes to reduce impacts on aquatic systems.


Key words


Hazards, Indicators, Pesticides import, Toxicity



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