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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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        Abstract - Issue May 2012, 33 (3)                                                                                                             Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Chemical characterization of rain water in a seasonally

dry tropical region (Varanasi), India


Author Details


Jitendra Pandey

(Corresponding author)

Environmental Science Division, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi - 221 005, India


Ashima Singh

Environmental Science Division, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi - 221 005, India



Publication Data

Paper received:

13 December 2010


Revised received:

18 April 2011



23 April 2011



Rain water samples, covering 44 rain events of 2008 and 52 rain events of 2009, were collected at urban and suburban locations of Varanasi and analyzed for pH, conductivity and for metal and nutrient ions. The pH of rainwater varied between 6.3 and 7.9, with over 70% of samples having alkaline range. Volume weighed mean concentration of ions indicated Ca2+ (11.62 - 41.60 eq l-1) to be the most dominant species followed by SO42-(4.7 - 25.2 eq l-1), Na+ (1.60 10.25 eq l-1), Mg2+ (0.22 7.21 eq l-1), (NO3- (0.73 4.02 eq l-1), K+ (0.50 3.70 eq l-1) and PO43- (0.02 0.97 eq l-1) respectively. Among the heavy metals, Cr (12.60 to 44.60 g l-1), Zn (4.25 to 34.55 g l-1) and Mn (10.62 to 28.40 g l-1) were found to be the dominant component of rain water. The varimax rotation of PCA results extracted four major factors namely urban-industrial emission, crustal aerosols, wind transport and biomass burning accounting for 80% of the total variance. The study has relevance in establishing cause-effect relationships for terrestrial as well as for aquatic ecosystems.


Key words

Rain water, Heavy metal, Nutrient ions, Crustal aerosols, Atmospheric deposition


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