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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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        Abstract - Issue July 2009, 30 (4)                                                                                                             Back

Abstract _09

Bioconcentration and phytotoxicity of chromium in Eichhornia crassipes


Kumkum Mishra1, Kiran Gupta1 and Upendra Nath Rai2

1Plant Genetic Unit, Botany Department, Lucknow University, Lucknow - 226 007, India

2Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow - 226 001, India

(Received: August 09, 2007; Revised received: January 08, 2008; Accepted: February 12, 2008)


Abstract: Physico-chemical parameter and metal concentration in effluents of two industries i.e. Tannery industry, Jajmau, Kanpur and Electroplating industry, Scooter India Limited (SIL), Lucknow were determined to assess the toxicity of chromium. Metal accumulation in Eichhornia crassipes growing in these contaminated sites were also determined. For laboratory toxicity testing the plants were exposed to nutrient solution containing Cr concentration ranging from 0.01-10 mg ml-1 for 24-96 hr. Accumulation of chromium was observed to be dependent on its concentration and time of exposure and was greater in roots (789.3 mg g-1 d.wt.) than in leaves (335.6 mg g-1 d.wt.) after 96 hr at 10 mg ml-1 concentration. Under field conditions the accumulation of Cr was 1258 and 733.3 in roots and 94 and 53 mg g-1 d.wt. in leaves of E. crassipes growing in Jajmau, Kanpur tanning industry and SIL effluents, respectively. It was found that lower doses (0.01-0.1 mg ml-1) of chromium had stimulatory effect on various metabolic activities in plants including chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll, protein, nitrate reductase and mitotic index. Whereas higher doses of chromium had inhibitory effect. The carotenoid content and number of micronuclei was found directly proportional to the concentration of chromium and increased with increase in concentration of chromium to which plants were exposed. It may be concluded from the present study that E. crassipes is tolerant to the elevated Cr concentration as there is no inhibition of chlorophyll and carotenoid upto 0.1 mg ml-1 at 24 and 48 hr exhibiting phytotoxicity at higher concentration. Therefore, E. crassipes may be used as bioassay for biomonitoring and control of Cr pollution in the environment.

Key words: Eichhornia crassipes, Chromium, Phytoremediation, Biomonitoring

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