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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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        Abstract - Issue Apr Supplement 2007, 28 (2)                                                                                                             Back


Calcium homeostasis in low and high calcium water acclimatized Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to ambient and dietary cadmium


H. B. Pratap*1 and S. E. Wendelaar Bonga2

1Department of Zoology and Wildlife Conservation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam-35064, Tanzania

2Department of Animal Ecology and Ecophysiology, Faculty of Science, Radboud University of Njimegen Toernoiveld-1,

Nijmegen-ED 6525, The Netherlands

(Received: November 12, 2005 ; Revised received: June 15, 2006 ; Accepted: July 30, 2006)

Abstract: The effects of cadmium administered via ambient water (10 mg/l) or food (10 mgCd/fish/day) on plasma calcium, corpuscles of Stannius and bony tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to low calcium (0.2 mM) and high calcium (0.8 mM) water were studied for 2, 4, 14 and 35 days. In low calcium water acclimated fish, ambient cadmium induced significant hypocalcemia, while the structure and morphometry of type-1 and type-2 cells of corpuscles of Stannius were not affected on day 2 and 4. Subsequently on day 14 and 35, recovery of plasma calcium to normal levels was observed followed by a decrease in corpuscles of Stannius index (CSI), cell size, volume of granular endoplasmic reticulum (p<0.05) of type-1 cells in both, fish exposed to ambient or dietary cadmium. The type-2 cells were not affected. In high calcium water acclimated fish both, ambient and dietary cadmium caused a significant reduction of plasma calcium levels on day 2 and 4. In these fish, there was a significant transient increase in the size of corpuscles of Stannius on day 4, followed by recovery on day 14 and 35. Ultrastructural observations of corpuscles of Stannius revealed that cadmium did not cause any cellular damage on type-1 and type-2 cells during 35 days exposure. In low or high calcium water acclimatized tilapia exposed to ambient or dietary cadmium had no effect on the calcium and phosphate composition of the scales, operculum and vertebrae. Thus, it is unlikely that recovery of hypocalcemia was due to the dissolution of calcium from bony tissues. This study also revealed that cadmium does not mediate stimulation of the corpuscles of Stannius gland, and that high Ca2+ water had a protective effect against ambient and dietary cadmium.

Key words: Calcium, Cadmium, Corpuscles of Stannius, Oreochromis mossambicus


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